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Top 10 Books for Developing Critical Thinking

"It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting it."

- Aristotle

Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman - 10/10

This is the most influential book I have ever read. It completely changed the trajectory of my career. It opened a new world of understanding of how patients and providers think and how they respond to the information they receive on a daily basis. This book provides a comprehensive overview of heuristics and biases. If I can recommend a single book to you, it is this one. It is thick and will take time. I recommend setting aside time and marking up the book. Then go back and review your notes. It is the most common book I refer to in my commonplace books.

How Not to Be Wrong: The Power of Mathematical Thinking by Jordan Ellenberg - 10/10

If I used a 100 point scale, Thinking, Fast and Slow would be a 100 and How Not to Be Wrong would be a 98. I love Ellenberg's style of blending the art of writing and telling a perspective with the science of mathematics and behavioral psychology. Ellenberg makes statistics and mathematics approachable to the lay individual and causes the clinician to challenge their assumptions. I view research and statistics in a new light since reading this book.

The Pleasure of Finding Things Out by Richard Feynman- 9.5/10

The only reason it did not receive a 10/10 is some sections were very technical (physics lectures) and did not provide value. Otherwise, this book is incredible. The theme of doubt and scientific curiosity provides value to anyone in any profession. Questioning everything does not mean we lack commitment; the aim is not to be a perfectionist. Frequently expressing doubt and maintaining a high level of scientific curiosity is the single most important quality for any professional aiming to constantly improve. We will never have all the answers, but we can keep refining and layers on new concepts, new perspectives, and new information.

Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error - 9.5/10

One of the best non-fiction books I have ever read. Up there with Thinking, Fast and Slow for its ability to cause the reader to pause and reflect. Being wrong shows the power and value of wrongness. It tackles various psychological, social, economic, and political reasons for despising being wrong, then challenges the traditional viewpoints. I have changed many viewpoints during my career (value of manual therapy and dry needling, the existence of perfect posture, and the importance of lifting mechanics) and expect more changes in the future. We are limited by our experiences and perspectives. Being wrong is how we learn and grow. It is something to embrace and seek, not shun.

The Undoing Project: A Friendship That Changed Our Minds by Michael Lewis- 9/10

This is a great overview of the combined works of Kahneman and Tversky. I didn't realize how vital Tversky was to the success of Kahneman. They were a great pair that complemented each other. Neither would have had near the impact independently as they did together. This is a great book to pair with Thinking, Fast and Slow.

Antifragile: Things that Gain from Disorder by Nassim Taleb- 9/10

This is easily the most frustrating book I have ever read. On the one hand, Taleb provides a  raw and authentic viewpoint regarding the challenges with forecasting and preparing for future events. On the other hand, he can be a real jackass. Granted, he acknowledges it in his book and is unapologetic about it (he didn't call himself a jackass but understands he can be off-putting). You have to respect that. There are several views Taleb holds that I disagree with, but that isn't a bad thing. You can't agree with everything you read. This book will challenge your mindset around preparing for the future and how you develop yourself personally and professionally.

The End of Average: How We Succeed in a World That Values Sameness by Todd Rose - 9/10

The End of Average showcases the importance of individual approaches to treating, teaching, managing, and training. The book highlights the flaws of applying averages and mean values from statistics to individual people. If you design a "one size fits all" approach then you design an approach that fits no one. This is applicable to clinicians, managers, researchers, and educators. We learn at different paces and the context of a situation impacts our emotions and actions. Our individual characteristics differ but when lumped into an average outcome may be the same. This book provides strategies to avoid the fallacies of ignoring context and individuality. It uses research and case studies to demonstrate that complex characteristics, such as intelligence and personality, cannot be measured by single values or terms. It has reshaped my thinking about how I design treatment plans and lectures. It is a must-read for any clinician.

Superforecasting: The Art and Science of Prediction by Philip Tetlock and Dan Gardner- 9/10

This book is the antithesis of Antifragile in many ways. Superforecasting does not propose one cannot be antifragile per se, but it does embrace the notion we can improve our forecasting abilities. Rather than abandoning forecasting, as Taleb suggests, Tetlock and Gardner outline various strategies to improve forecasting skills. For clinicians, these skills are valuable for the development of a plan of care. For all professionals, they can help with the planning fallacy that often accompanies projects. You can be both antifragile and use the strategies of a superforecaster.

Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking by Malcolm Gladwell - 9/10

Blink explains the power and limitations of intuition. How do we decide when to trust our gut reaction? When do we need to slow down and critically think? When is critical thinking more costly than helpful? Experience and training are necessary to build trustworthy intuition. This allows us to make accurate rapid decisions. Throughout life, rapid decisions are necessary and excessive information becomes a distraction. Gladwell breaks down the research of fast and frugal decision-making to help us understand how and why we make rapid decisions. He provides strategies for improving our decision-making that can be applied to any career. This book is a great compliment to Thinking, Fast and Slow.

Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything by Steven Levitt and Stephen Dubner- 9/10

Freakonomics causes you to think critically about cause and effect. Levitt's research draws fascinating conclusions that make you question your depth of analysis of work problems. The book will not give you the knowledge to memorize and immediately apply, with no business or development strategies. Instead, it makes you wonder about hidden variables that influence everyday outcomes. I recommend having a basic understanding of statistics before reading the book so that you can appreciate the conclusions he draws (including the issues with observational studies and correlation data).

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